Sunday, December 19, 1993

A Community Survey of Talim Island with Implications for the Establishment of Public Library Service

Researcher: ROSARIO TORRES MEDINA


Course: Master of Library Science


School: University of the Philippines


Subject Area: Public Libraries


Year of Graduation: 1993


Statement of the Problem

Library services were provided to the community folk on Talim Island in order to improve their skills and knowledge and the quality of life. Specifically, it sought to determine the following: 1. Acceptance of library services; 2. Value of the library to the community; 3. Willingness of local government officials and civic organizations to support the library; and 4) Reading interests and needs of the community.


Methodology

A community survey was conducted to determine the feasibility of establishing a public library and whether the islanders are ready for such a service. The following factors were ascertained: 1. population of the island; 2. literacy rate; 3. general educational background; 4. occupation; 5. reading interests; and 6. needs of the community.


Findings

The results of this study show that the parent respondents are middle-aged, within the 31-40 age group, while the children respondents are in the 13-15 age group. The educational level of mothers is higher than that of the fathers, as more mothers have college degrees. Many of the children respondents have secondary school diplomas. Most of the fathers are engaged in fishing as an occupation while the mothers are in the teaching profession. Some children do catechism work. The common language used in the Island is Tagalog but many also understand, speak and write in English language. Many of the respondents read daily and weekly, mostly newspapers and books. Significantly, comics magazines rank only fourth among the reading materials while friends are second sources of reading materials. All the respondents, both parents and children, agree to the establishment of public library services on the Island and they feel that the government should be the one to establish such services. They are willing to support and maintain it, once it is already established. The respondents chose the barangay hall as the best location in the meantime until a separate building could be constructed.


Conclusions

The study concluded that based on the demographic profile of respondents as to age, educational level, literacy level, reading interests and their attitude towards public library services, the time is ripe for such public library services to be established on the Island. The respondents know the value of reading and they are ready to have a public library for their use, instead of relying on the libraries in the mainland of Cardona and Binangonan of which Talim Island is a part.


Recommendations

The study strongly recommends that the local government start planning for the establishment of Talim Island of a public library that will be a source of information, recreational reading and education as well. The building should be a separate one but, in the meantime, it can be housed in the barangay hall. The public library must have a good starting collection and two librarians to man it. Later on, the public library can organize a “floating library” to service the other parts of the Island or to put up reading centers in every barangay. The public library, when established, must have linkages with the schools, church, government and non-government agencies, prominent families, etc. to ensure continuing support of the library. Lastly, the study recommends that the Department of education, Culture and Sports start adult education classes to reach out to the illiterate members of the community.

Saturday, December 18, 1993

The Inter-Institutional Consortium (I-IC) Processing Center, 1981-1991: A Performance Audit

Researcher: PERLA TORRES GARCIA

Course: Master of Library Science

School: University of the Philippines

Subject Area: Academic Libraries, Resource Sharing

Year of Graduation: 1993

Statement of the Problem
The efficiency and effectiveness of the Inter-Institutional Consortium (I-IC) Processing Center were studied in its ten years of operation (1981-1991), in terms of the implementing processes and products within the context and input components. The I-IC Processing Center is a cooperative, centralized cataloging project of libraries of five institutions of learning, namely: 1) De La Salle University; 2) Philippine Christian University; 3) Philippine Normal University; 4) St. Paul College, Manila; and 5) St. Scholastica’s College.

Methodology
Analysis of extant documents and the descriptive survey method were used to gather data. The efficiency of the Center was determined by comparing the completion of cataloging output with the required monthly output of five hundred book titles. The physical flow of the processing and the specific cataloging procedures were described and illustrated in flowcharts. The effectiveness of the Center was measured according to the extent of use of the union catalog and cataloging tools by the cataloging staff of the member libraries.

Findings
1. The Center was found inefficient in the delivery of its cataloging service as indicated by the slow turnaround time of books processed. It was able to process on the average 149.91 titles a month against the target of 500 titles a month.

2. The highest cataloging support was given to PCU Library.

3. The Center was found ineffective in performing its cataloging function as reflected by great number of quality catalog records produced. Only 10 percent of the records was found to be incomplete and 15.9 percent was found inconsistent.

4. The budget performance of the Center showed its incapacity to sustain itself in its cataloging function. A total deficit of P13,275.32 was accumulated by the end of the tenth year of operation of the Center.

5. Despite availability of the union catalog either in card format and computerized format, access to and use of it by the cataloging staff of the consortium was not fully maximized.

Friday, December 17, 1993

Deselection Processes in Selected Academic Libraries in Metro Manila

Researcher: LEONIDA A. DELA CRUZ


Course: Master of Library Science


School: University of the Philippines


Subject Area: Deselection-Metro Manila


Year of Graduation: 1993


Statement of the Problem

This study was aimed to explore the state of deselection process or weeding in selected academic libraries in Metro Manila. It sought to find out the nature and extent of weeding, the existence of deselection policies, if any, the deselection methods and criteria used, the methods of disposing the discarded stock and the problems encountered by the academic librarians in implementing the weeding process.


Methodology

The study used the descriptive survey method of research. A structured questionnaire was used as a tool in data collection. Eighteen academic libraries were surveyed.


Findings

1. All academic libraries surveyed practice weeding or deselection of library materials but only seven out of eighteen academic libraries follow a periodic weeding program.

2. Only twelve libraries have written weeding policies to guide the staff in weeding the collection.

3. The principal methods used in weeding are shelf-time period and shelf-scanning/stock revision.

4. The criteria used for weeding the book collections are unwanted/unused volumes, duplicate volumes, physically worn-out, age and use patterns of materials. The two primary criteria for weeding the periodical collection are duplicate copies and serials of the news magazine type.

5. The methods of disposing the discarded stock are: donate to other libraries, distribute to interested students, just store in stock room and throw away as trash.

6. Deselection is not a continuous or year-round activity in most of the academic libraries because of the following problems: a) lack of staff; b) lack of time; and 3) difficulty in getting participation, etc.


Conclusions

1. Since all academic libraries surveyed perform deselection process, it is an indication that they perceive the process as an important component of the collection development program.

2. Academic librarians perform weeding but most of them have no continuous or periodic weeding programs

3. Weeding policies are used by most academic librarians in the deselection process but there are still a few who do not have written guidelines.


Recommendations

1. Implement continuous and regular weeding process, at least once every two years.

2. Emphasize weeding of less-used materials by transferring or relocating them to a stock room rather than totally discarding them in as much as all are related to the curriculum.

3. For academic libraries with no weeding policies yet, formulate sound guidelines and perform deselection process in the light of these policies.

4. To solve the deselection problems encountered by academic librarians, there should be lectures or seminars about weeding so that academic librarians would be made more aware of the importance of the process.

Thursday, December 16, 1993

A Survey of Libraries among Selected Agencies under the Office of the president with Implications toward Resource Sharing

Researcher: HELEN DE CASTRO

Course: Master of Library Science

School: University of the Philippines

Subject Area: Public Libraries, Resource Sharing

Year of Graduation: 1993

Statement of the Problem
The existing resource, facilities, equipment, services and resource sharing activities of eight libraries were surveyed in an attempt to determine the possibility of establishing a library under the Office of the President.

Methodology
The survey was conducted using the descriptive method of research, employing a questionnaire which was supplemented by interviews. Sixteen libraries responded and accomplished the questionnaire.

Findings
The findings revealed that in terms of location, it is feasible for the eight libraries of the following offices to engage in resource sharing: 1) Department of Budget and Management; 2) Department of Budget and Management Legal Office; 3) Malacañang Palace Library; 4) National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women; 5) Office of the President; 6) Office of the President Legal Office; 7) Presidential Library; and 8) Presidential Management Staff.

Majority of the respondents have collections organized according to standard classification scheme. Respondent librarians have positive attitude towards resource sharing. The cooperative activities they are willing to engage in are: 1) cooperative acquisition; 2) cooperative cataloging; 3) indexing of serials; 4) production of union catalog of books, production of union list of serials, sharing of tools (cataloging/classification and selection tools), interlibrary access and staff training. The respondents chose the Presidential management Staff to be the focal point for the proposed resource sharing activity.

Recommendations
1. A cooperative program among the eight libraries within Malacañang Complex be established;

2. A formal written agreement be drawn up to specify the responsibilities and benefits of a cooperative program and that the agreement be ratified at the highest administrative level of the agency and the library;

3. A union catalog of library resources be compiled to serve as the nucleus of the network; and

4. A continuing education program be provided to both professional and para-professional library staff.

Wednesday, December 15, 1993

Library Resources of Colleges and Universities in the Province of Pampanga: An Evaluative Study

Researcher: ERLINDA GARCIA BAGTAS


Course: Master of Library Science


School: University of the Philippines


Subject Area: Academic Libraries-Evaluation-Pampanga


Year of Graduation: 1993


Statement of the Problem

The status of the 16 colleges and universities in the Province of Pampanga were examined in relation to the different academic library standards of institutions, namely: Department of Education, Culture and Sports (DECS); Fund for Assistance to Private Education/Private Higher education (FAPE/PHE); Philippine Association of Academic and research Libraries (PAARL); and Philippine Accrediting Agency for Schools, Colleges and Universities (PAASCU). The physical facilities and equipment, collection resources, financial resources, use and services, organization and care of materials, and personnel of these libraries were compared against the standards or criteria set up by these different institutions. This study was undertaken to assess the academic libraries’ strengths and weaknesses on specific areas to serve as a guide for the librarians and administrators in establishing plans for the development and improvement of the academic libraries.


Methodology

In appraising the library resources, the descriptive method was used. Secondary sources such as college or university bulletins of information, catalogs, anniversary publications and faculty manuals were used in gathering information about institutional profiles. Informal interviews were also conducted for additional information. Simple analysis of variance was used to determine the status of the different library resources of each college and university.


Findings

Results of the comparison made against the different standards for academic libraries reveal that most of the libraries occupy quarters for the library. All are strategically located and accessible and fairly attractive. Very few libraries, however, conform with DECS, FAPE?PHE and PAASCU standards in providing enough seats and space for their students. Most of these libraries have no provisions for the increase in enrollment over a period of five years. Based on PAARL standards, 50 % of the libraries conform with the provision of enough seats and space for its students. Most of the libraries of the province are deficient in equipment and furniture. Space provided for specific work areas in most libraries is inadequate. The staff members are not provided with necessary facilities for more efficient and effective services.

As for the collection and organization of materials, it was found out that the library collection in all institutions consists basically of books and very few periodicals. Non-print materials and the more sophisticated resources are unavailable. A small number of Filipiniana and Asian materials are available in all the libraries. There are still libraries which maintain integrated libraries for secondary and tertiary levels. Very few libraries weed their collections. A few libraries do not maintain a continuous program of organizing their library collections. Card catalogs are not maintained in some libraries.

On the aspects of financial resources, the library budgets show a wide range of inadequacies. However, eight (8) institutions have definite budget allocations.

As for use and services, majority of the libraries have flexible library schedules which offer services to their graduate students and evening classes. Majority of the libraries have equitable and flexible lending policies.

Majority of the libraries have full-time head librarians with MLS (Master of Library Science) units. Very few librarians are assigned to other positions and responsibilities in the institution. Almost all the libraries lack full-time support staff. Majority of the libraries rely heavily on student assistants. All the head librarians have faculty status. A few institutions provide scholarships and study benefits for their staff as part of the staff development program. There are no library committees acting in an advisory capacity for library development in most libraries of the province.

Tuesday, December 7, 1993

Factors Related to Mutilation and Theft of Library Materials in PAASCU-Accredited (Level III) Colleges and Universities in Metro Manila

Researcher: EMERLITA C. RODIS


Course: Master of Library Science


School: University of the Philippines


Subject Area: Academic Libraries, Collection-Security measures


Year of Graduation: 1993


Statement of the Problem

This paper systematically examines the library and academic factors, perceived by students, that possibly influence theft and mutilation of library books and other materials.


Methodology

The 318 subjects of the study who were selected at random were enrolled in the accredited academic departments of eleven schools and universities in Metro Manila which are PAASCU accredited (Level III). They were requested to answer the structured questionnaire prepared for the purpose. Interviews were also conducted with some willing respondents. This research is essentially descriptive and analytic in approach. It made use, to some extent, of the principle of correlational research in identifying the library and academic factors that may be related to the acts of mutilation and theft of library materials. The Parten’s formula for size of respondents was utilized to determine the number of respondents from each school to be included in the study. The validation of the questionnaire was done with the use of the Kuder-Richardson equation for validity of instruments. The raw data obtained from the questionnaire were computerized and data processing was personally handled by an accredited statistician to ensure the correctness of the processed figures. The researcher however, personally encoded and tabulated the data manually for accuracy.


Findings

1. The library factors perceived to influence most of the incidence of library crimes of theft and mutilation are: library security, ease and availability of library materials, size of library collections and the aspect of photocopying machines.

2. The academic factors that could possibly cause library crimes of mutilation and theft, as perceived by students, are: frequency and bulk of assignments. Frequency of use of library, time constraints for submission of assignments and researches and rather strict teachers.


Conclusions

This study was able to test the existence of relationships between the library factors that could cause library crimes and the personal/economic variables. The students believe that certain preventive measures, stop-gap measures and long-term solutions can help minimize, to a negligible level, the incidence of library crimes. However, the perceived effectiveness of these measures and solutions vary significantly with respect to the students personal and economic characteristics.


Recommendations

The study recommends practically all the suggestions and recommendations cited as effective by students. In addition, the library authorities are encouraged to conduct periodic vigorous publicity campaigns that will inform and better orient students on the services they can avail of in the library and the proper use of the library. Likewise, the posting of a visible directory that indicates the “where” and “how” of library books and other materials is recommended. Warning signs and the list of penalties for library crimes should be posted in conspicuous places in and out of the library, with corresponding replacement costs of stolen or mutilated books and other materials. Teachers are requested to refrain from giving many assignments that need materials only found in the library. Moreover, a better time frame should be made on deadlines for the submission of such assignments. Furthermore, teachers are advised to orient and educate their students on the proper use of the library. The library authorities, with the support of the school administration, should be consistent and strict in implementing the policies and guidelines they had formulated.

Monday, December 6, 1993

A Proposed Library Media Center for the University of the Philippines Integrated School

Researcher: TERESITA D. SANTOS

Course: Master of Library Science

School: University of the Philippines

Subject Area: Media Centers

Year of Graduation: 1993

Statement of the Problem
The main thrust of the study is the organization of a media center at the University of the Philippines Integrated School (UPIS). The initial task was to determine the current status of audiovisual resources and their utilization by the faculty. It proceeded to: 1. Establish the objectives and functions of a media center in the UPIS Library in relation to the mission objectives of the school; 2. Identify the needs to establish a media center for the faculty and students; and 3. Determine the needed policies and procedures to govern the administration of the center.


Methodology
The descriptive method was used in this study. Two sets of questionnaires were used: one for the 15 heads/administrators and another for the 90 faculty members of the UPIS. These questionnaires were the primary tools used for data gathering, supplemented by interviews and actual observations. Secondary sources were consulted, such as the records of the Human Resource Development Office, particularly in hiring media personnel.

Findings
1. There is a need to establish a media center within the UPIS. The audiovisuals, facilities and services in the UPIS are evidently not enough to meet the teaching needs of the school.

2. Utilization of newer media resources is not maximized due to the lack of awareness by the faculty of their existence. Lack of newer media resources and equipment to service the faculty also explains this low utilization.

3. There is a need to organize the audiovisuals in the school for more effective and efficient use. A union list of audiovisual resources is urgently needed.

4. The faculty members lack courses in audiovisual education as well as training in relation to media utilization

5. There is no budget specifically appropriated for media services in the school.

Conclusion
It is evident from the results of the study that the UPIS should establish a media center responsible for the organization and management of audiovisual resources in order to fulfill its vital role as a partner in the school’s instructional program.

Sunday, December 5, 1993

The University of the Philippines, 1908-1986, as seen through the Presidential Papers

Researcher: CANDIDA G. SARMIENTO


Course: Master of Library Science


School: University of the Philippines, Diliman


Subject Area: University of the Philippines


Year of Graduation: 1993


This is a historical study which presents a narrative record of each university president’s contribution to the growth and development of the University of the Philippines from 1908-1986. The study deals on the more important pronouncements of the said presidents and highlights of events that happened during their term of administration. The paper aims to familiarize future generations of alumni with significant development in the University. This study will be useful for scholars, students of history and education, as well as the general citizens who want to know more about the University. It also includes biographies of the fourteen university presidents from President Murray S. Bartlett to Edgardo J. Angara. A guide to the presidential papers available at the University Archives and Records Depository and a list of colleges, schools, institutions and centers of the University showing the founding dates are included in the paper.

Wednesday, December 1, 1993

The Choice of Librarianship as a Profession by Male Library Science Students

Researcher: SHIM IN HEE

Course: Master of Library Science

School: University of the Philippines

Subject Area: Librarianship, Male Librarians

Year of Graduation: 1993

Statement of the Problem
Several factors that influenced male library science students in their choice of librarianship as a profession in the Philippines were examined. The objectives of the study were to: 1) analyze the extent of individual and social factors in influencing male students in their choice of librarianship as a profession; 2) know the demographic characteristics of male library science students, including the socio-economic status of their families as reflected by their annual income and social prestige in the community as well as the educational attainment of their parents; 3) find out the internal and external forces behind their decision-making on the choice of librarianship as a profession; 4) know the reasons why male students shifted to library science and what their future plans are.

Methodology
This study used the normative survey research method using a questionnaire as a tool for gathering data. The subjects of the study were 55 male library science students enrolled in the library schools in Metro manila during the first semester, 1992-1993. The purposive sampling procedure was employed due to the small number of male students.

Findings
The findings of the study show that most of the subjects are relatively young, with some of them already married, their parents are highly educated and their economic status is above average. The decision on the choice of librarianship as a profession was made, while in college, by the students themselves as well as by other persons. If ever the students were influenced by other persons, the librarians, friends and other relatives were the ones who guided these students in their choice of librarianship as a profession. Their parents, spouses, relatives, former teachers, friends, instructors and supervisors have more favorable attitudes towards their chosen profession. The main reason for shifting to library science is disqualification from their first chosen course. When they decided to shift to library science, many of them had no prior knowledge of library science. They all preferred to work in special libraries. The library science subjects which strongly influenced their desire to pursue the degree are Indexing, Special Libraries and Information science. They all plan to seek a library job after graduation. The individual factors which have a strong influence over the male students’ decision to choose librarianship as a profession are: 1) opportunity for intellectual development; 2) opportunity to rise through one’s effort; 3) liking for books; 4) opportunity to earn a Bachelor’s or Master’s degree; and 5) liking for people. The social factors which influenced strongly the respondents’ decisions are: 1) immediate employment after graduation; and 2) importance of libraries in society. Based on the comparison of the mean point value of the respondents’ ratings, the male students were found to be more influenced by individual factors.