Sunday, July 2, 2006

Status of the Secondary School Libraries in the Division of Ifugao Based on Department of Education Standards

Researcher: NELLY B. AGPAWA

Course: Master of Arts in Education major in Library Science

School: Saint Mary's University, Philippines

Subject Area: School Libraries-Ifugao

Year of Graduation: 2006

Institutional self-assessment of the status of the secondary school libraries allows school heads, principals, and school librarians to determine their library's strengths and weaknesses. In recent surveys, findings showed that many Philippine school libraries in general hardly meet the requirements imposed in the standards.

Statement of the Problem
This study assessed the status of the secondary school libraries in Ifugao based on the library standards of the Department of Education. Specifically, the study (1) identified the secondary schools in the Division of Ifugao which had a functional library, (2) described the general profile of the functional libraries in terms of the following areas: (a) physical set-up, (b) library resources/collections, (c) organization and maintenance of holdings, (d) staffing and administration, (e) services; (3) evaluated the libraries and the extent to which they complied with the maximum standards set by the Department of Education on areas specified above.

It employed the descriptive-evaluation survey method and involved two phases. Phases 1 - The survey of all the secondary school in Ifugao to determine the existence of such elements as: (1) a library room /building; (2) Qualified librarian or teacher-librarian (with an item to perform the library functions and services; and(3)book, periodical, and non-book collections. Phases 2 - Personal ocular visit to the libraries, inspection of their records, observation of their procedures, and evaluation of their (a) physical set- up, (b)library resources/collections, (c) organization and maintenance of holdings, (d) staffing and administration, and (e)service

Research Environment and Procedure
The environment of the study (Province of Ifugao) consists of 11 municipalities: Banaue, Hungduan, Kiangan, Lagawe, Mayoyao, Alfonso Lista (Potia), Hingyon, Tinoc, Asipulo and Aguinaldo. In Phase 1, 37 schools were the target but 1 did not response to the survey. Of the 36 that responded to the first phase, only 16 met the required elements of a library - library room,collections, and a qualified librarian. In stage 2, only 9 were found to be functional and hence were finally evaluated - 5 public high schools, 2 vocationals school attached to a college, and 2 private high schools namely: (1)Banaue National High School, (2)Mayoyao National High School, (3)Hapid National High School-Main, (4) Namillangan National High School,(5) Santa Maria National High School, (6)Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry-Nayon, (7) Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry-Lagawe, (8)Immaculate Conception School, and (9) Don Bosco High School. The 9 school libraries were evaluated using an evaluation instrument based on the DepEd Library Standards- with criteria along such areas as: physical set-up, facilities, resources, organization and maintenance of holdings, staffing and services. Factual information were also recorded. The evaluation was done on a 6- point rating scale: Very Great Extent, Moderate Extent, Little Extent, Very Little Extent, and Missing but Needed. The specific physical facilities and equipment were assessed and identified if they were within or below standards.

Only 9 secondary schools of Ifugao (out of 37 ) had functional libraries. Only 4 librarians had the necessary basic educational qualifications (Bachelors degree and major/minor or specialization in Library Science). They also passed the Librarian Licensure Examination which is the basic licensure requirement prescribed in Philippines Librarianship Act of 1994. Five (5) have seminars and trainings in library science and one of them had availed a magna carta illigibility.

In general, the 9 libraries had extensive collection of general encyclopedias unabridged English dictionaries, subscription of local magazines, collections of novels (home reading books), books on Social Sciences, Filipino and English grammar, Filipino and English literature, and History. But they had moderate collections of science and health encyclopedias, other language dictionaries, subscription to national newspapers, books on philosophy, religion, arts, technology, geography and English and Filipino Supplementary Readers. They had a very little collection of encyclopedias, world atlases, Philippine atlases, books on mathematics, history, world almanac, national magazines, professional materials for teachers, yearbooks, almanacs and the Guinness Book of World records, school manuals and guides, and school library manuals/guides, biography books. Missing but needed were multi-lingual dictionaries, gazetteer or geographical dictionary, subscriptions to local newspapers.

Globes, world maps, Asian maps, charts, posters and pictures were generally available in the libraries but the private and vocational schools had more of these than the public schools. Only 1 (a private school) had a overhead projector. Not one of the 9 schools has slide projector. Only 1 private school had a carousel. CDs and VCDs are not provided at all in the public and vocational schools. Both the 2 private schools have CDs in their library collection, but only 1 has VCDs. Filmstrips and slides are not also available in the 9 schools. Radio cassette recorder, cartridges, and records are available in the 2 private and 2 vocational schools, but not in all of the 5 public school libraries.

Except for having a functional card catalog,all the 9 libraries performed to a little extent proper accessioning, cataloging and classification (with the use of the Dewey Decimal Classification, Sears List of Subject Headings, and Cutter's Table), shelflisting and proper labeling of books as limited. The libraries did not do binding and indexing bound periodicals, organizing school archives, and cataloging, classifying and properly storing audiovisual materials.

The 9 libraries were generally weak in their staffing. Most of the librarians had no major in library science and had limited experience as librarian. Except for attending library seminars as moderate in extent, the librarians had little involvement in extra-curricular activities and very little or no involvement at all in Library Committees. Written policies, procedures, rules and regulations were provided only to a very limited. Most of the libraries had no comprehensive library handbook of policies, procedures, and rules and regulations.

To a moderate extent, the librarians oriented their new faculty, staff, and students about the library policies, collections and programs, proper use of library facilities and resources. Use of the open-shelf system was very limited -with the collections mostly behind closed shelves or cabinets. The libraries provided to a moderate extent bibliographic reader assistance. Provision of photocopying service was limited for some and missing for most of the libraries.

The strongest characteristics of libraries (described as extensive )are about their(a)accessibility to the teachers and students, (b)being well lighted, and (c)being well ventilated. To a moderate extent, their libraries are rectangular, with 2/3 of the area devoted as reading room. But functional and properly spaced furniture and equipment are limited.

More than 50% of the functional libraries had single-faced and doubled spaced book shelves, bulletin boards, magazines display racks, newspapers racks and dictionary stand with shelves but most of these are below standards. However, less than 50% of the libraries had standard reading room, tables, card catalog cabinets, shelf list cabinets, charging desks, vertical file cabinets for clippings, information file cabinets, library supplies storage cabinets, and librarian's working table.

All of the 9 libraries had office supplies such as accession books, library cards, fasteners, stapler, staple wires, staple wire remover, and glue. But fewer than 50% of them had puncher, tape, dispenser, and supply of bond paper, dater stamp pad ink, logbooks, paper cutter, and tray for index cards. Radio cassette tape recorder was available only in 1 private school, both vocational schools, and some of the public high schools and some public high school libraries

On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that much is still to be desired with respect to the present conditions of the libraries in the areas of physical set-up, library resources/collections, organizations and maintenance of holdings, staffing and administrations, and services. They are a far cry from the requirements as spelled out in the Library standards formulated by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.

Primary attention should be addressed to the 28 schools that do not have a functional library. The 9 functional schools should be further strengthened.

Saturday, July 1, 2006

Undergraduate Students' Use and Non-Use of the Nueva Vizcaya State University Library as Related to Certain Variables

Researcher: JUVY B. PALIS

Course: Master of Arts in Education major in Library Science

School: Saint Mary's University, Philippines

Subject Area: Academic Libraries - Nueva Vizcaya

Year of Graduation: March 2006

In this present continuously changing environment, modern libraries are no longer mere depositories of all past, present and future knowledge. They have become information-oriented. As a result, they have become more of information service centers reaching out to readers who are actively involved in the development of the society - in contrast to the traditional libraries that simply waited for their readers.

Statement of the Problem
This study explored the phenomenon of undergraduate college students' use and non-use of Nueva Vizcaya State University (NVSU) and the factors that influence such phenomenon. Specifically, the study determined the following: (1) distribution of the (a) users and (b) non-users of NVSU Library (based on enrollment) across the following variables: 1.1 college; 1.2 curriculum year; 1.3 sex; 1.4 residence while studying; and 1.5 academic classification; (2) significant differences in the distribution of users and non-users of NVSU Library when grouped according to the aforementioned profile variables; (3) On the part of the users: extent of their self-reported use of NVSU Library based on: 3.1. attendance, 3.2. use of the a. Circulation, b. Filipiniana, c. Reference, d. Periodicals, and e. Graduate School Sections; (4) the extent of the students' use of the library (based on actual book loans) with respect to the subject classifications; (5) significant differences in the extent of (a) attendance, (b) book loans when grouped according to the following variables: 5.1 college; 5.2 curriculum year; 5.3 sex; 5.4 residence while studying; and 5.5 academic classification; (6) primary (a) purpose/reasons and (b) motivators of the student library-users in using the library resources; (7) significant differences among the users' (a) purpose/reasons and (b) motivators in using the library resources when grouped according to their profile variables; (8) On the part of the non-users: their a dominant reasons (de-motivators) and (b) classroom instruction-related alternatives for their non-use of the NVSU Library, and (9) significant differences among the non-users' (a) dominant reasons (de-motivators) and (b) classroom instruction-related alternatives for their non-use of the NVSU Library when grouped according to their profile variables.

The study used the descriptive survey method, particularly the following sub-types: normative, comparative, and correlational analysis. The primary data were obtained through a survey questionnaire. Secondary data came from documentary sources, particularly library records on student's use of NVSU-Main Campus-Library. The study covered the schoolyear 2004-2005, particularly June 2004-March 2005.

Research Instruments
There were two sets of questionnaires – Set A for the identified library users, and Set B for the non-library users. Both questionnaires had the same first part which ask common information such as personal profile variables, namely: college, curriculum year, gender, residence while attending school, and academic classification. Part 2 of Set A (for the users) asked data on the following attendance, reported use of the different sections purposes/reasons for the use of the library, and the motivators in using the library resources. Part 2 of Set B (for the non-users), asked data on the following: (a) dominant reasons (de-motivators) and (b) classroom instruction-related alternatives for their non-use of the NVSU Library. Library records, monthly statistical summary reports on loans, book cards, and circulation files, were used as sources of data on the following variables: (a) individual student's book loans (or number of materials borrowed), in the different sections, such as the following: Circulation Section, Filipiniana Section, Reference Section, Periodical Section, and Graduate School Section; (b) kinds/forms of materials (namely, books, periodicals, reference books, non-book materials) borrowed, (c) subject classification of book loans. Based on the records of the use of the library, the users and non-users were identified. The identified library users were given Survey Questionnaire, Set A. The identified library non-users were given Set B.

Treatment of Data
The data were analyzed using the following descriptive statistics: 1. frequency counts and percents were used to describe the profile and distribution of the respondents; 2. means and standard deviations were used to describe the users in terms of attendance; and 3. reported use of the different sections, purposes/reasons for use of the library, and motivators in using the library resources and the non-users in terms of (a) dominant reasons (de-motivators) and (b) classroom instruction-related alternatives for their non-use of the NVSU-Library. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficient (r) were used to test significant correlation between the students' profile variables and their respective variables indicative of use and non-use of the Library. Analysis of Variance, t-test, and chi-square were used to test the significant differences between/among the users and non-users (with respect to certain indicators or descriptors of use and non-use of the library) when grouped according to certain profile variables. The null hypotheses were tested at 5% level of significance. Statistical analyses were done through the Statistical Package.

1. Users and Non-Users of the Library. Only 36.7% of the total average enrollees per semester during the School Year 2004-2005, used their library, that is borrowed a library material at least once during the semester. The proportion of the non-users of the library is bigger (63.3%), indicating minimal use of th library. The highest proportion of users (based on average enrollment) came from the students in the colleges of Engineering and Agriculture, first year, and females.

2. Significant Differences in Proportion of Users and Non-users Across Variables. There were no significant differences on the proportions of users and non-users across colleges, academic classification, residence while studying, house staying in while studying, and sex, except across curriculum year level where there were significantly more users in the first and third years than in the other year levels.

3. Reported Use of the Library. In general, the reported attendance in the library regardless of the variables, was 3 to 4 days a week. The most frequently used section of the library was the Circulation Section.

4. Actual Book Loans and Library Attendance Among the Users. On the average, the users borrowed 4 to 5 books in NVSU Library. But the highest number of book loans were made by the students in the colleges of Engineering and Agriculture (7, and 6, respectively), and fifth year students (8). The males and females borrowed almost the same number of books (5 and 4, respectively). Most of the book loans were in the pure sciences, applied sciences(or technology), and social sciences – in that order.

5. Significant differences in Actual Attendance and Book Loans Across Variables. The library users from the Colleges of Engineering and Education had significantly more actual library attendance (library visits) than those in the other colleges. But extent of user's library attendance (frequency of library visit) did not significantly vary across sex, year level academic classification, residence while studying at NVSU, and house staying in while studying.

6. Purposes/Reasons and Motivations for Using the Library. The leading purposes of the users in going to the library were: (1) to borrow library materials for research work, term papers, and assignments; (2) study their lessons, read their own books, and notes, and (3) Read books and periodicals in advance for future lessons. The leading motivations for the library use are: (1) to learn and to understand one's subject well; (2) to be regularly prepared interact actively with one's teachers and fellow students in classroom discussion and dialogs; (3) to get good grades in quizzes, examinations, recitation, assignments, (4) to make quality well-prepared research papers, term papers, reaction papers and project by using library resources; and (5) to good academic image among one's teachers, friends, and classmates.

7. Significant Differences in Reasons and Motivations When the Users are Grouped Accordingly to Variables. There was no significant difference in the extent of almost all of the reasons identified by respondents when they are grouped by sex, and college, except for “reading magazines and newspapers” as a reason or purpose. There was no significant difference in all of the reasons when the users were grouped by year level, residence while studying, house staying in, and academic classification. There were also no significant differences in the extent of all the motivators when the respondents were grouped by college and year level.

8. Reasons for Non-Use. Among the non-users, their leading reasons for non-use of the library are: (a) difficulty of looking for library materials; (b) inadequacy of existing library materials especially for one's course and field of specialization; (c) unavailability in the library of reading materials assigned by teachers; (d) unapproachable library personnel; (e) assignments,projects, term papers, reaction papers assigned by the teachers can be done without using the library; (f) lack of adequate knowledge and skills in using the library; inadequate reading space, poor lighting and ventilation in the library; and (g) pressure from one's peers/classmates not to go to the library.

9. Alternatives for Non-Use. The non-users leading alternatives are: (a) buying one's own textbooks and references; (b) book loans one's classmate books references, and notes; (c) relying principally on one's teacher's handouts and lectures; and (d) using the Internet sources outside the NVSU Library. The non-uses do not differ significantly in their demotivators when they are grouped according to year level, house staying in, and academic classification. They also do not significantly differ in their alternatives when grouped according to sex and house staying in.

1. Minimal use of the NVSU Library by the students, vis-a-vis the total enrollment. Very few students use the NVSU Library. In general they do not find using the library resources as necessary in their studies. They can go on with their schooling without Book Loans library materials. Using the library has not yet become a culture in college students' academic life. This is equally true for students regardless of college enrolled in, academic year, sex, and residence while studying, house staying in while studying, and academic classification.

2. Library attendance and Book Loans are minimal. On the part of the users, there is not much use of the library with respect to attendance and book loans. However, Education and Agriculture students go to the library more and borrow books more than the students in other colleges. Other variables such as academic year, sex, residence while studying, and house staying in while studying are not significant sources of variation among the users in terms of attendance, book loans, reasons for use, and motivations for use. However, regular or ordinary students tend to use more the library than the academic scholars, dean's listers and Working Students.

3. Inadequacy and availability of library resources and difficulty of looking for library materials are the leading causes of non-use of the library. Consequently, the non-users leading alternatives are (a) buying one's own textbooks and references; (b) book loans one's classmate books, references, and notes; (c) relying principally on one's teacher's handout and lectures; and (d) using the Internet sources outside the NVSU Library.

On the strength of the foregoing findings and conclusions, the researcher offers the following recommendations:

1. Students should be given activities, which will trigger their interest and develop positive attitude towards the use of the library, e.g. conduct of a Library Week.

2. Instructors should integrate library work in their syllabus by giving them assignments and enrichment activities to be accomplished in the library work

3. Administrators support and encourage the librarians to engage/attend to seminar – workshop and/or trainings to update their knowledge in the new trend of approaches techniques and skills in managing the library and must develop program and strategies for the promotion of the library use.

4. The librarian should revisit and revise the policies on library use.

5. There is a need to improve the utilization of library resources through library marketing and cooperation with the faculty.

6. Information storage and retrieval system must be enhanced to improves access to library materials.

7. The NVSU library collection should be developed based on the needs of faculty and students.

8. Further research similar to the one is recommended to follow up to the librarian profile to access their needs in their work.