Sunday, July 2, 2006

Status of the Secondary School Libraries in the Division of Ifugao Based on Department of Education Standards

Researcher: NELLY B. AGPAWA

Course: Master of Arts in Education major in Library Science

School: Saint Mary's University, Philippines

Subject Area: School Libraries-Ifugao

Year of Graduation: 2006

Institutional self-assessment of the status of the secondary school libraries allows school heads, principals, and school librarians to determine their library's strengths and weaknesses. In recent surveys, findings showed that many Philippine school libraries in general hardly meet the requirements imposed in the standards.

Statement of the Problem
This study assessed the status of the secondary school libraries in Ifugao based on the library standards of the Department of Education. Specifically, the study (1) identified the secondary schools in the Division of Ifugao which had a functional library, (2) described the general profile of the functional libraries in terms of the following areas: (a) physical set-up, (b) library resources/collections, (c) organization and maintenance of holdings, (d) staffing and administration, (e) services; (3) evaluated the libraries and the extent to which they complied with the maximum standards set by the Department of Education on areas specified above.

It employed the descriptive-evaluation survey method and involved two phases. Phases 1 - The survey of all the secondary school in Ifugao to determine the existence of such elements as: (1) a library room /building; (2) Qualified librarian or teacher-librarian (with an item to perform the library functions and services; and(3)book, periodical, and non-book collections. Phases 2 - Personal ocular visit to the libraries, inspection of their records, observation of their procedures, and evaluation of their (a) physical set- up, (b)library resources/collections, (c) organization and maintenance of holdings, (d) staffing and administration, and (e)service

Research Environment and Procedure
The environment of the study (Province of Ifugao) consists of 11 municipalities: Banaue, Hungduan, Kiangan, Lagawe, Mayoyao, Alfonso Lista (Potia), Hingyon, Tinoc, Asipulo and Aguinaldo. In Phase 1, 37 schools were the target but 1 did not response to the survey. Of the 36 that responded to the first phase, only 16 met the required elements of a library - library room,collections, and a qualified librarian. In stage 2, only 9 were found to be functional and hence were finally evaluated - 5 public high schools, 2 vocationals school attached to a college, and 2 private high schools namely: (1)Banaue National High School, (2)Mayoyao National High School, (3)Hapid National High School-Main, (4) Namillangan National High School,(5) Santa Maria National High School, (6)Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry-Nayon, (7) Ifugao State College of Agriculture and Forestry-Lagawe, (8)Immaculate Conception School, and (9) Don Bosco High School. The 9 school libraries were evaluated using an evaluation instrument based on the DepEd Library Standards- with criteria along such areas as: physical set-up, facilities, resources, organization and maintenance of holdings, staffing and services. Factual information were also recorded. The evaluation was done on a 6- point rating scale: Very Great Extent, Moderate Extent, Little Extent, Very Little Extent, and Missing but Needed. The specific physical facilities and equipment were assessed and identified if they were within or below standards.

Only 9 secondary schools of Ifugao (out of 37 ) had functional libraries. Only 4 librarians had the necessary basic educational qualifications (Bachelors degree and major/minor or specialization in Library Science). They also passed the Librarian Licensure Examination which is the basic licensure requirement prescribed in Philippines Librarianship Act of 1994. Five (5) have seminars and trainings in library science and one of them had availed a magna carta illigibility.

In general, the 9 libraries had extensive collection of general encyclopedias unabridged English dictionaries, subscription of local magazines, collections of novels (home reading books), books on Social Sciences, Filipino and English grammar, Filipino and English literature, and History. But they had moderate collections of science and health encyclopedias, other language dictionaries, subscription to national newspapers, books on philosophy, religion, arts, technology, geography and English and Filipino Supplementary Readers. They had a very little collection of encyclopedias, world atlases, Philippine atlases, books on mathematics, history, world almanac, national magazines, professional materials for teachers, yearbooks, almanacs and the Guinness Book of World records, school manuals and guides, and school library manuals/guides, biography books. Missing but needed were multi-lingual dictionaries, gazetteer or geographical dictionary, subscriptions to local newspapers.

Globes, world maps, Asian maps, charts, posters and pictures were generally available in the libraries but the private and vocational schools had more of these than the public schools. Only 1 (a private school) had a overhead projector. Not one of the 9 schools has slide projector. Only 1 private school had a carousel. CDs and VCDs are not provided at all in the public and vocational schools. Both the 2 private schools have CDs in their library collection, but only 1 has VCDs. Filmstrips and slides are not also available in the 9 schools. Radio cassette recorder, cartridges, and records are available in the 2 private and 2 vocational schools, but not in all of the 5 public school libraries.

Except for having a functional card catalog,all the 9 libraries performed to a little extent proper accessioning, cataloging and classification (with the use of the Dewey Decimal Classification, Sears List of Subject Headings, and Cutter's Table), shelflisting and proper labeling of books as limited. The libraries did not do binding and indexing bound periodicals, organizing school archives, and cataloging, classifying and properly storing audiovisual materials.

The 9 libraries were generally weak in their staffing. Most of the librarians had no major in library science and had limited experience as librarian. Except for attending library seminars as moderate in extent, the librarians had little involvement in extra-curricular activities and very little or no involvement at all in Library Committees. Written policies, procedures, rules and regulations were provided only to a very limited. Most of the libraries had no comprehensive library handbook of policies, procedures, and rules and regulations.

To a moderate extent, the librarians oriented their new faculty, staff, and students about the library policies, collections and programs, proper use of library facilities and resources. Use of the open-shelf system was very limited -with the collections mostly behind closed shelves or cabinets. The libraries provided to a moderate extent bibliographic reader assistance. Provision of photocopying service was limited for some and missing for most of the libraries.

The strongest characteristics of libraries (described as extensive )are about their(a)accessibility to the teachers and students, (b)being well lighted, and (c)being well ventilated. To a moderate extent, their libraries are rectangular, with 2/3 of the area devoted as reading room. But functional and properly spaced furniture and equipment are limited.

More than 50% of the functional libraries had single-faced and doubled spaced book shelves, bulletin boards, magazines display racks, newspapers racks and dictionary stand with shelves but most of these are below standards. However, less than 50% of the libraries had standard reading room, tables, card catalog cabinets, shelf list cabinets, charging desks, vertical file cabinets for clippings, information file cabinets, library supplies storage cabinets, and librarian's working table.

All of the 9 libraries had office supplies such as accession books, library cards, fasteners, stapler, staple wires, staple wire remover, and glue. But fewer than 50% of them had puncher, tape, dispenser, and supply of bond paper, dater stamp pad ink, logbooks, paper cutter, and tray for index cards. Radio cassette tape recorder was available only in 1 private school, both vocational schools, and some of the public high schools and some public high school libraries

On the basis of the findings, the study concluded that much is still to be desired with respect to the present conditions of the libraries in the areas of physical set-up, library resources/collections, organizations and maintenance of holdings, staffing and administrations, and services. They are a far cry from the requirements as spelled out in the Library standards formulated by the Department of Education, Culture and Sports.

Primary attention should be addressed to the 28 schools that do not have a functional library. The 9 functional schools should be further strengthened.

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